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Abstract Definition Science

Abstract definition of science is concerned with concepts and ideas that are not self-sufficient. The word 'abstract' was first used in 18zelian (a Greek philosopher, who according to legend wrote the Metaphysics) and literally meant 'not present.' It could mean 'not physical.' Now abstract definition science, as defined by Halliday and Hill, is “the application of scientific principles to specific examples.” That sounds about right to me.

Halliday and Hill also pointed out that there are three major categories of physical sciences, namely, known as physical sciences (physics, chemistry, astronomy); natural sciences ( ecology, geology, physiology); engineering sciences ( mathematics, computer science, etc. ); and social sciences (social science, psychology, sociology). In this article we will discuss the fourth category, social sciences.

Now to get to the definition I think we must first look at what social is. Halliday and Hill write, “In its broadest sense, social is a 'general' concept that identifies and characterizes the interaction of human beings in complex social reality.” They further describe it as “the study of how human beings interact and relate to one another.” With such a broad definition like this we can now see social science as a subset of the broader definition of natural science.

As mentioned earlier, we now know that the study of social interaction is a subset of the larger field of physical sciences. Now what if the above portion of the spectrum were reduced to include all the physical sciences? Well, then we would begin to see a new class of science called Physical Science. A physical scientist might be interested in studying rocks or properties of metals or gems, or studying the composition of stars. He would not be interested in studying bacteria or cells, earth's climate, or human anatomy. All he would be interested in is what happens when he puts these things together in the lab.

So, now we must ask – Is the universe governed by laws that can be understood by scientists, or are they operating in an entirely different realm altogether? To answer that question, we must look into what philosophy and naturalism say about how the world works. According to philosophers, nature is completely natural, and everything in the universe including human beings, are part of its great plan. It follows that a science which treats all phenomena as independent from each other and studying independently of any influence, would be completely unable to describe the universe. According to naturalists, however, things are far less random and are the result of forces that act according to their own self-organization, and thus everything in the world can be studied using scientific methodologies.

In addition to these two major subsets of science, there exists another definition science that has become popular in recent years. This subset of science is known as Systems Chemistry, and it was developed by MIT professor Richard Kolman. What he did was to take a naturalistic view of chemistry, and attempt to make it mathematically more understandable. As such, his model offers a viable alternative to the physical sciences, and it even accounts for the production of living organisms.

Now, when discussing these two alternative definition science options, one must remember that they do not exhaust all possible methods of explanation in the physical sciences. The physical sciences can explain the behavior of subatomic particles, but they cannot explain the cause of the behavior, or how it came about in the first place. Thus, it is with the help of an explanation from something external to the real cause, such as Kolman's System chemistry, that a meaningful theory of the real cause of the universe can be arrived at. Although it does not provide a physical account of the real cause, it is still a useful starting point for scientists who would like to know the answer to the question – 'what is reality?'

When discussing the difference between philosophy and science, one must also remember that although they often approach the same questions, they do not do so in the same way. Philosophy seeks to find a meaning in life; a meaning independent of science which would make sense in the big scheme of things. Whereas, in order for science to answer these questions, it must offer some kind of physical evidence in the form of test results or observations. This kind of evidence comes in the form of observations and test results, and can therefore not be easily explained by a purely naturalistic theory, such as the above mentioned one. For this reason, those looking for an explanation in the form of a general theory which would explain everything without reference to particulars, and could be tested and accepted by the physical sciences, should turn their attention towards the abstract definition science.

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